Development in Kashmir
The poultry development programme was
initiated Kashmir Division during the year 1957-58 to introduce the improved breeds and
also to meet the growing demand of eggs and table-birds.
realizing the progress and potential, the programme was extended to generate the
employment through establishment of commercial Poultry farms. With the sustained
the department both these objectives have been achieved to a considerable
extent. Thousand of small and medium scale farms have emerged all over the
valley providing both direct and indirect employment opportunities to a large
of people through the poultry development wing and extension programmes of the
department. The poultry population in Kashmir Division is about 42-23 lac out
of which 25 are of improved varieties. The department is running poultry project
one each at Hariparbat Srinagar and Mattan Anantnag under integrated poultry
development programme with the prime objectives of:
1. Production of quality day old chicks at the hatchery for sale to the
2. Supply of chicks to various poultry demonstration
centers in the division
for further distribution to the progressive farmers after rearing up to 2-3
months of age.
3. Providing necessary inputs, technical guidance and training to the
progressive farmers for setting up of new poultry units.
4. Providing diagnostic and health cover facilities to the poultry farmers.
5. Providing marketing support to the poultry farmers for eggs and birds.
Over all in-charge of the programme is Joint Director,
Poultry cum Livestock Production Programme Hariparbat who is assisted by a team of officers at divisional
as well as district level.
The Department is
continuing with the project for bringing genetic improvement of the strain,
which has shown high adaptability and better performance under the agro-climatic
conditions of the Valley.
The Department is
engaged with a project to evolve a high producing hybrid layer suitable to the
agro - climatic conditions of the Kashmir valley. The technical programme of the
scheme aims at:
Characterization of native poultry.
b) Evolving of a
backyard poultry bird well adapted to the agro-climatic
conditions of the
The project was
started in the year 1998-99 and under the research programme the local genetic
poultry material of Tangmarg, Lolab and Yousmarg areas has been used to study
various adaptability traits. The genes from recognized exotic breeds have been
used for improving the egg / meat production capacity of the local genetic
material. The data was recorded with respect to various objective traits fixed, so as to study the improvement in these
traits after using egg type sire in 1st phase to the dam ; and broiler type sire
in 2nd phase to F1 progeny. The studies done on the economic traits of birds of
F1 generation with regard to age at maturity, egg number, average egg weight,
average body weight and livability showed excellent results in all the three
improved genetic groups. The progeny obtained by inducing broiler type sire to
the F1 progeny (local x egg type sire) has also given encouraging results as
compared to the control group both under captivity and in free range system. The
Kashmir Commercial Layer (KCL) foundation stock has been evolved and the stabilization
programme is under process which shall continue upto 6 generations viz. year
2007-08 to assess the actual performance potential of the newly evolved "KCL"
bird. The statistical analysis of the data generated so far has been done in
collaboration with SKUAST, Kashmir. The genetic characteristics of the local
breed have been taken up in collaboration with Central Avian Research Institute,
Izatnagar, as the facilities for conducting molecular characterization are not
available in J&K State. The genetic characterization of the local breed will
help in studying the genetic worth of the native bird and the genetic
variability in the local genetic resources pertaining to native poultry bird.
This may also yield other valuable scientific information, which could be
subsequently exploited in the breeding of birds at higher altitudes. The project
is expected to incur an expenditure of Rs. 32.50 lacs.
The department has about 58.700 sq. ft. rearing space
with 34.500-sq. ft. under divisional sector and about 24.200 sq. ft. under
district sector. Because of the efforts of the department there has been a
tremendous leap forward in poultry development sector both qualitatively and
quantitatively. Qualitatively speaking the department has introduced high
yielding strain of both egg type birds and broiler type birds. With regard to the
egg production stream, the department has introduced the commercial strain of
birds manly H H 260. The present stock of this bird is imported annually from
Bangalore and kept at our farms for future breeding and multiplication purpose.
Though the reported ideal production potential of the strain is 260 eggs per year but
even under our field conditions the birds have performed well and given
production of about 180-200 eggs per year on hen house basis. Under the poultry
production programme against the target of 5,00 lac eggs annually the continued
efforts of the Department we have achieved these targets up to 4.59 lac during the
year 1997-98. In case of eggs, per person availability comes to 70 eggs per
year, against the national average of 35 eggs per person.
With regard to the broiler strain, the department has
introduced various meat producing strains with white rock as female and red
Cornish as male strain. The parent hens are imported from central
poultry breeding farm Chandigarh. But for years now we have found that the
commercial cross of these parent limes are not having expected growth potential
as compared to what has been observed with the day old chicks that the private
farmers are importing from franchise sources out side the valley. As a result, the
demand from local private formers has been quite low for our broiler chicks due
to its reduced growth rate.
The broiler raising has attained a mushroom growth
and it has been estimated that about 5-7 lac broilers are being raised by
private farmers a every month, this means that about 5-7 lac kgs of poultry meat
is being flooded into the market on the monthly basis. It is a fact before the
prevalent circumstances in the valley almost 10.00 lac broilers per month were
being raised by private farmers giving job opportunities to a good number of
people. There are 1300 private farmers with a rearing capacity from 500 to
10,000 birds per cycle registered with the department.
The department besides giving technical guidance is
actively engaged in providing the inputs to these farmers in terms of chicks
feed, vaccines, medicines, etc on a cost to cost basis.
The production of our hatcheries has also increased
simultaneously. During the year 1995-96 a modern hatchery was established in the
month of April 1995 and with its commissioning the demand of private poultry
farmers in respect of availability of Day old chicks is being met punctually.
The farm was setup to propagate
high producing strains of both
egg type ducks (Khaki Campbell) with production potential of about 200-280 eggs
year and broiler ducks (white pekin) with growth rate of 2-2.50 in 45-5- days
was introduced for the first time. The progening of these imported breeds has
found high favour with the people in the valley and out of it. But due to
prevailing conditions for the last 9 years, the main functions of the duck farm
has been adversely affected due to its gutted sheds, (walls and occupation of
the shed and campus by security forces. As a result no fresh parent stock could
Most of the rearing space in the duck farm has become
unfit for raring the stock due to bad condition of flooring, walls and even
window etc. due to the bunkers laid by security forces. The main gate is totally
smashed and wall of the farm has been floored down at many places due to
security forces bunkers.
In addition, the department under the revolving fund
scheme is also providing feed and medicines to the private farmers on no profit
no loss basis. A full-fledged marketing division is also functioning which
channelised the produce of private poultry farmers of the divisions of Kashmir
as well as Jammu. Since the egg type farms are in negligible number in Kashmir
region, the produce of private of farmers of Jammu Division is being channelised through our marketing
wing. The eggs are provided to the
consumers at reasonable cost with the sum to maintain the price of poultry
products in the market with regard to poultry meat, broiler production has taken
a course of a well organized industry and the farmers sell out their produce
partially at their own level and part of their produce is channelised through
The network of our poultry developmental
is as under
Intensive Poultry Development Project
(a) Hariparbat Srinagar
(b) Mattan Anantnag
District Poultry Farms
(c) Wadoora (Sopur)
3. Poultry Demonstration
4. Broiler Development
The main purpose of these poultry demonstration
centers is to rear the egg type, bird’s up to the age of 2-3 months age group
when they are vaccinated against all preventable diseases. The birds are then
supplied to the farmers under state and central government programmes. Similarly
day old broiler chicks are sold to public through these centres on weekly basis
and to the small and marginal farmers particularly in far-flung areas of the
undertaken by the department under
poultry development are recorded as under:
For imparting training to the prospective
entrepreneurs interested to set up poultry units, the department is under taking
the training of farmers training class at Hariparbat campus. In addition
in various aspects of poultry rearing is imparted to para-vets at the Stock
Assistant Training School, Gandarbal.
Feed Analytical Lab
For conducting feed analytical
tests the department
has an analytical lab at Hariparbat, which is at present carrying out proximate
analysis and other feed analytical tests. The lab. Also helps the private
farmers in analyzing the feed sample whenever approached.
Feed Manufacturing Units
The department has a feed manufacturing unit at
Hariparbat, where quality feed of various types is manufactured for supply to
the government farms as well as sale to the private farms.
Poultry Development Organization at District Level:
For providing necessary technical guidance, health
cover and vaccination facilities to the poultry farmers, the department has a
full-fledged Poultry Development Officer, one poultry extension officer and a
number of poultry supervisors in each district.
The face of poultry development could have been
altogether different in Kashmir but for the adverse agro climatic conditions
especially during winters when the temperature reaches sub-zero level coupled
with mono cropping pattern are in fact a major constraints in the raising of laying stock.
The low production pf poultry feed ingredients like maize fish meal etc
in the valley is responsible for higher production costs. This makes raising of
commercials layer birds in Kashmir a less remunerative. There is an urgent need to take immediate
steps for providing extra grants to poultry sector to meet the challenges of
poultry raising in winter till suitable building designs are adopted to
modernize the poultry rearing in the valley. Similarly to meet the increased
demand of lacs of Day Old Chicks in respect of broiler development programme in
private sector, the existing rearing space that is used for maintenance of
broiler parent lines needs to be augmented substantially.
Problems being faced under existing set up are as under
Out of the present about 60,000-sq. ft. rearing space about 20% space is
either gutted or occupied by the security forces.
The rearing space not only needs to be made fully
functional, but also increased to about 100 lac sq. ft. Rearing space to meet
the present demands of the public to fully meet the distribute of 2-3 age group
eggers under state and central government scheme programmes all over the valley
Most of the rearing space in Hariparbat and Athwajan government farms and
other has been built about 20-30 years before, as a result the condition of the
sheds is not such to achieve maximum production with minimum desire problem. Our
sheds have become infection prone and stress posing to the live stock. It has
been observed form the laboratory reports for the last more than six years that
the live stock has gone resistant to many common medicines such as Ampicilline,
Pencillines, Tetracyclines etc. and are sensitive to only quinilone derevatives
such as Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Pefloxacin and also to Gentamicin and
Roxithromycin. These drugs are not being supplied due to high cost, where as
poultry farming being most sensitive needs all such medicines readily available
in department stores to fight the diseases and save the live block from disease
Therefore most of the old sheds with the department
all over the valley need to be renovated immediately. To achieve all expected
In addition to the above, the equipment’s should be
provided fully. At present even at the level of present rearing space and
livestock in the different farms, there is a huge shortage of most of the
equipments. Therefore immediate steps for providing special grants to poultry
sector should be taken to meet the above urgent needs.
The department has been imputing parent layer line of
HH 260 for the last more than 20 years. No doubt the said breed is renowned egg
laying bird, but most sensitive too. It has been observed that this bird has not
given optimum performance in the valley as well as in Jammu for the last few
years which is thought to be due to some genetic problems in the pure line (in
breeding etc.) and to some other unknown reason. The some has been informed to
the concerned agencies but without any encouraging results. So far as the public
reports about F1 Generation of HH 260 is concerned, it has been satisfactory
proposed that necessary steps may be taken to switch over to some other best
eggs pure lines available in the country from government and private breeding
farm to see their performance in the valley.
It may also be mentioned that there is common thought
among the poultry experts of the department that an intensive survey may be done
to work out the production of a new Kashmir breed by the cross of female from
colder regions of the valley with the exotic breeds like HH 260 etc.
Thus the cross breed bird produced may have better
resistance to different diseases and can thrice better in terms of production
and other performance under weather conditions of the valley. In this regard the
different schemes are under consideration, but the department needs huge amounts
for the said programme which should be allotted at earliest to initiate such
Like eggs, the department is importing
parent lines from Central Poultry Breeding Farm Chandigarh. It has been observed
the growth of said broiler is quite slow as compared to other breeds from
private hatcheries as a result.
It is to give a boost to Broiler Industry in the
valley. We may change the slow growing broilers and switch over to get a best,
fast and best growing broiler pure lines available only from private agencies in
the country. This may give maximum possible benefit to the government as well to
the private poultry farmers of the state.
The present broiler day old chicks is sold Rs. 8/-
per chick against its production cost of 12 approximate, where as the market
cost of other broiler chicks from private hatcheries is Rs. 16-17 per chick. So
if we produce the best quality chick like private hatcheries we may sell the
chicks Rs. 13-15 per chick against the cost of production about 12 per head.
Thus we may earn the profit as well as meet the expectations of the private
But before all above regarding broiler we need to
increase the rearing space of parent line at Broiler project at least three
times the present one to make the programme a success at large scale.
of production of hatching eggs under present
status and prevailing set up due to all problems mentioned before is about Rs. 4
approximately including only inputs. The conditions if improved and give a
priority thought as suggested above the production cost of hatching eggs may
reach to less than Rs. 3 per egg.
The broiler hatcheries in private sector in Jammu
Division and also in Kashmir province are supplying good quality day old from
chick to the farmers. The only need is to provide a chick form the department
for quality and price. The broiler industry in private sector is performing
wall. They need technical guidance and disease diagnostic and for successful and
efficient broiler production. There is need for efficient marketing support by
the Animal Husbandry Department to the farmers to avoid unnecessary profiting by
Finally, poultry needs to be treated at par with
industry and all benefits of the industrial policy need to percolate to it as