Joint Directorate of Poultry, Kashmir

 

 

Joint Director
Phone No :  91-194-2429955
Email : jdp@jkanimalhusbandry.net


 

Poultry Development in Kashmir

Introduction

The poultry development programme was initiated Kashmir Division during the year 1957-58 to introduce the improved breeds and also to meet the growing demand of eggs and table-birds.

Subsequently, realizing the progress and potential, the programme was extended to generate the employment through establishment of commercial Poultry farms. With the sustained efforts of the department both these objectives have been achieved to a considerable extent. Thousand of small and medium scale farms have emerged all over the valley providing both direct and indirect employment opportunities to a large chunk of people through the poultry development wing and extension programmes of the department. The poultry population in Kashmir Division is about 42-23 lac out of which 25 are of improved varieties. The department is running poultry project one each at Hariparbat Srinagar and Mattan Anantnag under integrated poultry development programme with the prime objectives of:

1.   Production of quality day old chicks at the hatchery for sale to the poultry breeders/farmers.

2.    Supply of chicks to various poultry demonstration centers in the division for further distribution to the progressive farmers after rearing up to 2-3 months of age.

3.   Providing necessary inputs, technical guidance and training to the progressive farmers for setting up of new poultry units.

4.   Providing diagnostic and health cover facilities to the poultry farmers.

5.   Providing marketing support to the poultry farmers for eggs and birds.

Over all in-charge of the programme is Joint Director, Poultry cum Livestock Production Programme Hariparbat who is assisted by a team of officers at divisional as well as district level.  

KCL Project

The Department is continuing with the project for bringing genetic improvement of the strain, which has shown high adaptability and better performance under the agro-climatic conditions of the Valley.

The Department is engaged with a project to evolve a high producing hybrid layer suitable to the agro - climatic conditions of the Kashmir valley. The technical programme of the scheme aims at:

a) Characterization of native poultry.

b) Evolving of a backyard poultry bird well adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of the Kashmir Valley.

The project was started in the year 1998-99 and under the research programme the local genetic poultry material of Tangmarg, Lolab and Yousmarg areas has been used to study various adaptability traits. The genes from  recognized exotic breeds have been used for improving the egg / meat production capacity of the local genetic material. The data was recorded with respect to various objective traits fixed, so as to study the improvement in these traits after using egg type sire in 1st phase to the dam ; and broiler type sire in 2nd phase to F1 progeny. The studies done on the economic traits of birds of F1 generation with regard to age at maturity, egg number, average egg weight, average body weight and livability showed excellent results in all the three improved genetic groups. The progeny obtained by inducing broiler type sire to the F1 progeny (local x egg type sire) has also given encouraging results as compared to the control group both under captivity and in free range system. The Kashmir Commercial Layer (KCL) foundation stock has been evolved and the stabilization programme is under process which shall continue upto 6 generations viz. year 2007-08 to assess the actual performance potential of the newly evolved "KCL" bird. The statistical analysis of the data generated so far has been done in collaboration with SKUAST, Kashmir. The genetic characteristics of the local breed have been taken up in collaboration with Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, as the facilities for conducting molecular characterization are not available in J&K State. The genetic characterization of the local breed will help in studying the genetic worth of the native bird and the genetic variability in the local genetic resources pertaining to native poultry bird. This may also yield other valuable scientific information, which could be subsequently exploited in the breeding of birds at higher altitudes. The project is expected to incur an expenditure  of Rs. 32.50 lacs.  

Technical Programme

The department has about 58.700 sq. ft. rearing space with 34.500-sq. ft. under divisional sector and about 24.200 sq. ft. under district sector. Because of the efforts of the department there has been a tremendous leap forward in poultry development sector both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitatively speaking the department has introduced high yielding strain of both egg type birds and broiler type birds.  With regard to the egg production stream, the department has introduced the commercial strain of birds manly H H 260. The present stock of this bird  is imported annually from Bangalore and kept at our farms for future breeding and multiplication purpose. Though the reported ideal production potential of the strain is 260 eggs per year but even under our field conditions the birds have performed well and given production of about 180-200 eggs per year on hen house basis. Under the poultry production programme against the target of 5,00 lac eggs annually the continued efforts of the Department we have achieved these targets up to 4.59 lac during the year 1997-98. In case of eggs, per person availability comes to 70 eggs per year, against the national average of 35 eggs per person.

With regard to the broiler strain, the department has introduced various meat producing strains with white rock as female and red Cornish as male strain. The parent hens are imported from central poultry breeding farm Chandigarh. But for years now we have found that the commercial cross of these parent limes are not having expected growth potential as compared to what has been observed with the day old chicks that the private farmers are importing from franchise sources out side the valley. As a result, the demand from local private formers has been quite low for our broiler chicks due to its reduced growth rate.

The broiler raising has attained a mushroom growth and it has been estimated that about 5-7 lac broilers are being raised by private farmers a every month, this means that about 5-7 lac kgs of poultry meat is being flooded into the market on the monthly basis. It is a fact before the prevalent circumstances in the valley almost 10.00 lac broilers per month were being raised by private farmers giving job opportunities to a good number of people. There are 1300 private farmers with a rearing capacity from 500 to 10,000 birds per cycle registered with the department.

The department besides giving technical guidance is actively engaged in providing the inputs to these farmers in terms of chicks feed, vaccines, medicines, etc on a cost to cost basis.

The production of our hatcheries has also increased simultaneously. During the year 1995-96 a modern hatchery was established in the month of April 1995 and with its commissioning the demand of private poultry farmers in respect of availability of Day old chicks is being met punctually. 

The farm was setup to propagate high producing strains of both egg type ducks (Khaki Campbell) with production potential of about 200-280 eggs year and broiler ducks (white pekin) with growth rate of 2-2.50 in 45-5- days was introduced for the first time. The progening of these imported breeds has found high favour with the people in the valley and out of it. But due to prevailing conditions for the last 9 years, the main functions of the duck farm has been adversely affected due to its gutted sheds, (walls and occupation of the shed and campus by security forces. As a result no fresh parent stock could be imported.

Most of the rearing space in the duck farm has become unfit for raring the stock due to bad condition of flooring, walls and even window etc. due to the bunkers laid by security forces. The main gate is totally smashed and wall of the farm has been floored down at many places due to security forces bunkers.

In addition, the department under the revolving fund scheme is also providing feed and medicines to the private farmers on no profit no loss basis. A full-fledged marketing division is also functioning which channelised the produce of private poultry farmers of the divisions of Kashmir as well as Jammu. Since the egg type farms are in negligible number in Kashmir region, the produce of private of farmers of Jammu Division is being channelised through our marketing wing. The eggs are provided to the consumers at reasonable cost with the sum to maintain the price of poultry products in the market with regard to poultry meat, broiler production has taken a course of a well organized industry and the farmers sell out their produce partially at their own level and part of their produce is channelised through marketing wing.

The network of our poultry developmental stations/centers is as under

1.      Intensive Poultry Development Project 
(a) Hariparbat Srinagar  
(b) Mattan Anantnag

2.      District Poultry Farms  
(a) Baramulla
(b) Umberhair
(c) Wadoora (Sopur)

3. Poultry Demonstration Centers 
    (a) Budgam  
    (b) Trehgam 
    (c) Kakapora
    (d) Kangan 
    (e) Kulgam

4. Broiler Development 
    (a) Hariparbat

The main purpose of these poultry demonstration centers is to rear the egg type, bird’s up to the age of 2-3 months age group when they are vaccinated against all preventable diseases. The birds are then supplied to the farmers under state and central government programmes. Similarly day old broiler chicks are sold to public through these centres on weekly basis and to the small and marginal farmers particularly in far-flung areas of the valley.

Other activities undertaken by the department under poultry development are recorded as under:

A.     Training Institute

For imparting training to the prospective entrepreneurs interested to set up poultry units, the department is under taking the training of farmers training class at Hariparbat campus. In addition training in various aspects of poultry rearing is imparted to para-vets at the Stock Assistant Training School, Gandarbal.

B.     Feed Analytical Lab

For conducting feed analytical tests the department has an analytical lab at Hariparbat, which is at present carrying out proximate analysis and other feed analytical tests. The lab. Also helps the private farmers in analyzing the feed sample whenever approached.

C.     Feed Manufacturing Units

The department has a feed manufacturing unit at Hariparbat, where quality feed of various types is manufactured for supply to the government farms as well as sale to the private farms.

D.    Poultry Development Organization at District Level:

For providing necessary technical guidance, health cover and vaccination facilities to the poultry farmers, the department has a full-fledged Poultry Development Officer, one poultry extension officer and a number of poultry supervisors in each district.

The face of poultry development could have been altogether different in Kashmir but for the adverse agro climatic conditions especially during winters when the temperature reaches sub-zero level coupled with mono cropping pattern are in fact a major constraints in the raising of laying stock. The low production pf poultry feed ingredients like maize fish meal etc in the valley is responsible for higher production costs. This makes raising of commercials layer birds in Kashmir a less remunerative. There is an urgent need to take immediate steps for providing extra grants to poultry sector to meet the challenges of poultry raising in winter till suitable building designs are adopted to modernize the poultry rearing in the valley. Similarly to meet the increased demand of lacs of Day Old Chicks in respect of broiler development programme in private sector, the existing rearing space that is used for maintenance of broiler parent lines needs to be augmented substantially.

Problems being faced under existing set up are as under

1.      Out of the present about 60,000-sq. ft. rearing space about 20% space is either gutted or occupied by the security forces.

The rearing space not only needs to be made fully functional, but also increased to about 100 lac sq. ft. Rearing space to meet the present demands of the public to fully meet the distribute of 2-3 age group eggers under state and central government scheme programmes all over the valley and Ladakh.

2.      Most of the rearing space in Hariparbat and Athwajan government farms and other has been built about 20-30 years before, as a result the condition of the sheds is not such to achieve maximum production with minimum desire problem. Our sheds have become infection prone and stress posing to the live stock. It has been observed form the laboratory reports for the last more than six years that the live stock has gone resistant to many common medicines such as Ampicilline, Pencillines, Tetracyclines etc. and are sensitive to only quinilone derevatives such as Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Pefloxacin and also to Gentamicin and Roxithromycin. These drugs are not being supplied due to high cost, where as poultry farming being most sensitive needs all such medicines readily available in department stores to fight the diseases and save the live block from disease stresses.

Therefore most of the old sheds with the department all over the valley need to be renovated immediately. To achieve all expected results.

In addition to the above, the equipment’s should be provided fully. At present even at the level of present rearing space and livestock in the different farms, there is a huge shortage of most of the equipments. Therefore immediate steps for providing special grants to poultry sector should be taken to meet the above urgent needs.

The department has been imputing parent layer line of HH 260 for the last more than 20 years. No doubt the said breed is renowned egg laying bird, but most sensitive too. It has been observed that this bird has not given optimum performance in the valley as well as in Jammu for the last few years which is thought to be due to some genetic problems in the pure line (in breeding etc.) and to some other unknown reason. The some has been informed to the concerned agencies but without any encouraging results. So far as the public reports about F1 Generation of HH 260 is concerned, it has been satisfactory proposed that necessary steps may be taken to switch over to some other best eggs pure lines available in the country from government and private breeding farm to see their performance in the valley.

It may also be mentioned that there is common thought among the poultry experts of the department that an intensive survey may be done to work out the production of a new Kashmir breed by the cross of female from colder regions of the valley with the exotic breeds like HH 260 etc.

Thus the cross breed bird produced may have better resistance to different diseases and can thrice better in terms of production and other performance under weather conditions of the valley. In this regard the different schemes are under consideration, but the department needs huge amounts for the said programme which should be allotted at earliest to initiate such programme.

Like eggs, the department is importing chabro Broiler parent lines from Central Poultry Breeding Farm Chandigarh. It has been observed the growth of said broiler is quite slow as compared to other breeds from private hatcheries as a result.

It is to give a boost to Broiler Industry in the valley. We may change the slow growing broilers and switch over to get a best, fast and best growing broiler pure lines available only from private agencies in the country. This may give maximum possible benefit to the government as well to the private poultry farmers of the state.

The present broiler day old chicks is sold Rs. 8/- per chick against its production cost of 12 approximate, where as the market cost of other broiler chicks from private hatcheries is Rs. 16-17 per chick. So if we produce the best quality chick like private hatcheries we may sell the chicks Rs. 13-15 per chick against the cost of production about 12 per head. Thus we may earn the profit as well as meet the expectations of the private broiler farmers.

But before all above regarding broiler we need to increase the rearing space of parent line at Broiler project at least three times the present one to make the programme a success at large scale.

The cost of production of hatching eggs under present status and prevailing set up due to all problems mentioned before is about Rs. 4 approximately including only inputs. The conditions if improved and give a priority thought as suggested above the production cost of hatching eggs may reach to less than Rs. 3 per egg.

The broiler hatcheries in private sector in Jammu Division and also in Kashmir province are supplying good quality day old from chick to the farmers. The only need is to provide a chick form the department for quality and price. The broiler industry in private sector is performing wall. They need technical guidance and disease diagnostic and for successful and efficient broiler production. There is need for efficient marketing support by the Animal Husbandry Department to the farmers to avoid unnecessary profiting by the middleman.

Finally, poultry needs to be treated at par with industry and all benefits of the industrial policy need to percolate to it as well.

       

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      Last content update: May 2004

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